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A Moment in History

Giovanni Batista Morgagni
Original image courtesy of National Institutes of Health

Giovanni Battista Morgagni

(1682 - 1771)

Italian anatomist, physician, and pathologist, Morgagni was born in the city of Forli. He started his medical studies at the University of Bologna, graduating in 1701 with a degree in Medicine and Philosophy. In 1712 he became a professor of anatomy at the University of Padua, Italy, 175 years after Andreas Vesalius. Morgagni was offered and accepted the Chair of Anatomy in 1715 at the University of Padua. Although Morgagni held a position at the anatomy department of the University of Padua, his name is associated mostly with his pathological studies.

Morgagni was interested in the works of Theophile Boneti (1620 - 1689), who started analyzing the correlation between post-mortem anatomical findings and diseases. He tried to establish a relation between the disease and the cause of death. In 1761 Morgagni published his most influential work "De Sedibus et Causis Morburum Per Anatomen Indagatis"  (On the Sites and Causes of Diseases, Investigated by Dissection). His work was essential for pathological anatomy to be recognized as a science in itself.

Morgagni was elected to become a member of several Academies of Science and Surgery: The Royal Society of London, The Academy of Science in Paris, The Berlin Academy of Science, and the Imperial Academy of Saint Petersburg in Russia. He is remembered today by several eponyms in anatomy and pathology:

• Morgagni's caruncle or lobe, referring to the miidle lobe of the prostate
• Morgagni's columns: the anal (or anorectal) colums
• Morgagni's concha, referring to the superior nasal concha
• Morgagni's foramina: two hiatuses in the respiratory diaphragm allowing for passage of the superior epigastric vessels
 Morgagni's hernia: an hiatal hernia through Morgagni's foramen, in the respiratory diaphragm
• Morgagni's ventricle: an internal pouch or dilation between the true and false vocal cords in the larynx
• Morgagni's nodules: the nodules at the point of coaptation of the leaflets (cusps) of the pulmonary valve. Erroneously called the "nodules of Arantius", which are only found in the aortic valve

Sources:
1. "A Note From History:The First Printed Case Reports of Cancer" Hadju, S.I. Cancer 2010;116:2493–8
2. "Giovanni Battista Morgagni" Klotz, O. Can Med Assoc J 1932 27:3 298-303
3. "Morgagni (1682 -1771)" JAMA 1964 187:12 948-950

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Dr. Thomas Dent Mütter (1811-1859)


This article is part of the series "A Moment in History" where we honor those who have contributed to the growth of medical knowledge in the areas of anatomy, medicine, surgery, and medical research.To search all the articles in this series, click here.

Thomas Dent Mutter was born on March 9, 1811, in Richmond, VA. His mother died in 1813, and his father died of tuberculosis in 1817. Thomas was orphaned when he was barely 8 years old. His father left him a somewhat meager inheritance and in his early life had to do with less that others with his objectives in life. He was well educated under the tutelage of Robert Carter, his guardian, and in 1824 he started his studies at the Hampden Sidney College of Virginia. He continued with a medical apprenticeship with a Dr. Simms in VA. He was well respected and even at his early age he would do home visits for his medical benefactor with great results. He started medical studies at the University of Pennsylvania, where he earned his MD in 1831. The new young doctor, Thomas Dent Mutter, MD was only 20 years of age.

At the time, Europe was the place to go to if you wanted advanced medical studies. Dr. Mutter had no money, so he applied as a ship surgeon to be able to cross the Atlantic. Once in Europe, he spent time in Paris, where he studied under the tutelage of Dr. Guillaume Dupuytren. He later studied for a short time in England where he met Dr. Robert Liston. Following Dupuytren's teachings, Mutter was fascinated by plastic surgery.

Dr. Thomas Dent Mütter
Dr. Thomas Dent Mütter (1811-1859)

A chance encounter with what was to become his first well-known acquisition of a medical curiosity, Mutter started thinking on how to help those people that were known at that time as “monsters”, patients who the general public did not see, because they did not appear in public. The curiosity in question was a wax reproduction of the face of a French woman who had a “horn” arising from her forehead. This piece is on exhibit at the Mütter Museum.

Back in the United States in 1832, Thomas Dent Mutter changed his last name to give it a more “European” sound and added an “umlaut”, so now he was Thomas D. Mütter, MD. It may also be that he wanted to pay homage to his Scottish-German heritage, who knows? He opened his medical office in Philadelphia and although it took time, eventually he had a thriving practice. One of his specialties was the work on “deformities” so common at the time because of facial scars born out of the use of open fires in houses, and deformities caused by burns and loss of tissue due to chemicals used in local industry. Dr. Mütter is the pioneer of what we call today “Reconstructive Surgery”.

In 1835 he was asked to join the Medical Institute of Philadelphia as an assistant professor of Surgery. He was an instant success. Dr. Mütter was adored by his students because, he would question the students and guide them to discovery instead of just lecturing and leaving. In his Discourse eulogy of Dr. Mütter by Joseph Pancoast he writes:” The power of attracting students near him by his mingled gentleness, energy, and enthusiasm; of fixing their attention by the lucid and methodical arrangements of his Subject, by his clear demonstrations, and sprightly oral elucidations, came so readily to him, and was so early displayed) as to seem almost intuitive.” In 1841 Dr Mütter was appointed Professor of Surgery at the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia.

Dr. Mütter had always had poor health, even in childhood, and his dedication to his passion, long hours, took its toll on his body.

Wax curiosity, human horn
Wax curiosity, human horn
In 1956 he set sail for Europe and resigned his teaching duties. He was named Emeritus Professor of Surgery. Unfortunately, the trip did not help, and he returned to the US in early 1958. Fearful of another winter in cold Philadelphia, he moved to Charleston, SC, where he died on March 19, 1859.

Dr. Mütter’s story does not end here. He was an avid collector and throughout his short life he had pulled together an impressive collection of medical oddities, samples, and curiosities. Knowing that his life was at an end, he negotiated with the Philadelphia College of Physicians to have them host his collection in perpetuity as well as the creation of a trust fund that would ensure that the public and medical students would have access to this incredible collection. Through the years this collection has increased and is known today as the Mütter Museum of the Philadelphia College of Physicians. I strongly urge our readers to visit this incredible museum. For more information, click here.

Personal notes: In the late 90’s, I attended a meeting of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists.  During the meeting I met Gretchen Worden, who at the time was the Curator of the Mütter museum. Gretchen was inspirational, fun, and a great conversationalist! I had the opportunity to visit Gretchen at the Mütter museum and had the luck to be treated to a “behind the scenes” tour. What an experience! I was saddened to hear that Gretchen Worden passed on August 2, 2004. Still, in my recent visit to the Mütter Museum, I was glad to see a new section at the museum that remembers Gretchen. Her biography can be read here.

I would like to thank Dr. Leslie Wolf for lending me the book by O’Keefe that lead to me writing this article. Dr. Miranda

Sources:
1. “Dr. Mütter’s Marvels: A True Tale of Intrigue and Innovation at the Dawn of Modern Medicine” O’Keefe, C. 2015 Penguin Random House, LLC
2. “A Discourse Commemorative of the Late Professor T.D. Mütter” Pancoast, J. 1859 J Wilson Publisher
3. “Thomas Dent Mütter: the humble narrative of a surgeon, teacher, and curious collector” Baker, J, et al. The American Surgeon, Atlanta 77:iss5 662-14
4. “Thomas Dent Mutter, MD: early reparative surgeon” Harris, ES; Morgan, RF. Ann Plast Surg 1994 33(3):333-8
5. “5 Things I Learned from Thomas Dent Mütter” O’Keefe C. https://www.signature-reads.com/2014/09/5-things-i-learned-from-thomas-dent-mutter/


IN MEMORIAM

Gretchen Worden (1947-2004)
Gretchen Worden (1947-2004)




Surface anatomy

UPDATED: Surface anatomy is a subset of human anatomy that studies the relationship of external anatomical landmarks and deeply situated structures. These landmarks are created by cartilage, bones, tendons and muscles. In some cases they may be caused by a hypertrophic or diseased organ. Palpation is and art and my favorite book on the subject is the "Trail Guide to the Body" series by Andrew Biel

Surface anatomy is a core clinical skill for physicians, physical therapists and other health care professionals (HCP), as palpation in specific locations can lead to rapid diagnosis in certain cases.  It is also used in surgery to determine the appropriate place for incisions or insertion of a trocar in the case of minimally invasive surgery.

It is true that individual habitus and anatomical variations must make the HCP wary of potential mistakes, but in the majority of cases these anatomical landmarks and diagnoses are correct.

Many book chapters have been written on the topic, but unfortunately, the need to dedicate time to modern discoveries have reduced the time spent on this wonderful learning tool to the point that modern books of anatomy barely touch upon the subject. Many feel today that the need for this tool has been made irrelevant by the bed-side availability of ultrasound imaging.  I have to agree with Standring (2012) when she states “I am not convinced that surface anatomy is under growing threat from modern imaging technology…” There is and always will be the need for applied surface anatomy, although maybe not in the way and depth it was used in the past when imaging technology was scarce and expensive.

Surface anatomy art by Danny Quirk - with permission
Surface anatomy art by Danny Quirk - with permission

In order to make the importance of surface anatomy relevant in medical schools, some have added body painting as a tool in their anatomical curriculum with great results. Will it be used everywhere? I doubt it, but here again is link between human anatomy and art.

The artwork in this article is by Danny Quirk. Click on the image for a larger depiction. The video links are for the RMIT University Muscle Man and the Skeletal Man body paintings from the class by Dr. Claudia Diaz.

Personal note: One of the best book chapters on Surface Anatomy was written in "The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice" by Becker, Wilson and Gehweiler (1971). Unfortunately, although the content is very good, the images used, the lighthearted humor,  and type of humor used by the authors, plus the times at which the book was published forced the publisher to recall the book and destroy most of the copies. It was banned from use in medical colleges through the country. Known to many as the "green book" because of its cover, it is today considered a collector's curiosity. In the "sources" section of this article you can find a links to a journal article on the subject as well as images of the book. Dr. Miranda.

Sources:
1. “Evidence-Based Surface Anatomy” Standrig, S J Clin Anat (2012) 25:813–815
2. “Giving Color to a New Curriculum: Bodypaint as a Tool in Medical Education” Den Akker, JW. Et al J Clin Anat (2002) 15:356–362
3. “Body-Painting: A Tool Which Can Be Used to Teach Surface Anatomy” Nanjundaiah, K. J Clin Diag Res (2012) October, Vol-6(8): 1405-1408 Copy of the article here
4. “RMIT students paint anatomical man into human textbook” RMIT Dr. Diaz, C. Copy of the article here
5. “Should We Use Body Painting to Teach Anatomy?” Gambino, M article at Smithsonian.com  
6. “The role of Fresh Tissue Dissection and Anatomic Body Painting in Anatomy Education” Bennet, C. PPT presentation on PDF here
7. " The anatomical Basis of Medical Practice" Becker, RF. Wilson, JW, Gehweiler, JA 1971, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins
8. "The Pornographic Anatomy Book? The Curious Tale of The Anatomical Basis of Medical Practice" Halperin EC, Acad Med (2009) 84:2; 278-283 Article here
9. "The OBJECTIFICATION of Female Surface Anatomy" Ruiz, V. Internet article. Click here



Abdominal Regions

UPDATED: In surface anatomy the abdomen can be divided into nine regions by named lines (or planes): transpyloric, transtubercular, and midclavicular. These regions have specific visceral content.

• Hypochondriac regions (right and left): [Hypo]="below"; [chondr]="cartilage"; [iac]=”pertaining to”. In this context, the term means “below or deep to the cartilage (of the ribs)". The right hypochondriac region contains the liver, gallbladder, portal vein, and the right colic flexure. The left hypochondriac region contains the stomach, spleen, tail of the pancreas, and left colic flexure. For a detail on how the name of this region relates to a mental disorder, click here.

• Epigastric region: [Epi]="above"; [gastr]="stomach”; [ic]=”pertaining to". The term means “above the stomach”. This region contains mostly stomach and abdominal esophagus

• Lumbar regions (right and left): Right and left lumbar regions. The term [lumbar] refers to the area of the loins. The right lumbar region contains the ascending colon and part of the right kidney. The left lumbar region contains the descending colon and part of the left kidney

• Umbilical region: Centered around the umbilicus, this region contains mostly small intestine, abdominal aorta, and greater omentum


Abdominal regions - Modified from the original Davis, 1910 

• Inguinal regions (right and left): From the Latin [inguen]=”groin". Gaius Plinius Secundus aka “Pliny” (23-79 AD) first used this term naming after a plant (inguinalis) which he used to treat hernias of the groin. The right inguinal region contains the cecum and small intestine. The left inguinal region contains the sigmoid colon. In older days, as shown in the sketch, these regions were called the "iliac regions".

• Hypogastric region: [Hypo]="below"; [gastr]="stomach”; “ic”=”pertaining to. The term means “below the stomach”. The hypogastric region contains mostly small intestine and greater omentum. This region used to be called the "pubic region"

A clinical importance of these abdominal regions is that a ventral hernia is usually named by the anatomical region where it protrudes. Based on the image, you will see then why a hernia can be umbilical, inguinal, lumbar, epigastric, or hypogastric.

Sources:
1. "Applied Anatomy" Davis, GG 1910 JBL Co. Philadelphia
2. "The Origin of Medical Terms" Skinner, HA 1970 Hafner Publishing Co.


Phrenoesophageal ligament

UPDATED: The [phrenoesophageal ligament] or phrenoesophageal membrane is part of a complex system that closes off the esophageal hiatus, one of the seven hiatuses in the respiratory diaphragm, preventing the herniation of abdominal structures into the thoracic mediastinum.

The connective tissue layer called the endoabdominopelvic fascia, which lines the inner aspect of the abdominopelvic cavity, is found as a "glue" between the respiratory diaphragm and the parietal peritoneum. At this point the endoabdominopelvic fascia is called the "infradiaphragmatic fascia".

When the infradiaphragmatic fasia gets to the edge of the esophageal hiatus, it splits into ascending and a descending components or limbs. These are the superior and inferior phrenoesophageal ligaments or phrenoesophageal membranes. These phrenoesophageal ligaments create a circular disc-like plug between the abdomen and the thorax. This "plug" is reinforced by a infradiaphragmatic fat pad found internal to the phrenoesophageal ligament.

The phrenoesophageal ligaments are reinforced externally. On their thoracic aspect by the endothoracic fascia, and on the abdominal side, by parietal peritoneum.

Esophageal hiatus
Images property of:CAA.Inc. Artist:Dr. E. Miranda
The ascending limb fuses superiorly with the esophageal fascia, which lines the external aspect of the longitudinal muscle of the esophagus, as the thoracic esophagus does not have a serosa layer. The descending limb fuses inferiorly with the esophageal fascial covering of the longitudinal ligament as it is covered by the peritoneum . Failure of the phrenoesophageal ligaments can predispose to esophageal hiatus hernia.

2018 AACA Meeting (1)

The following article is embedded from our Facebook page  https://www.facebook.com/CAAInc.

This year the 2018 meeting of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists is being held in Atlanta, GA., at the Grand Hyatt Buckhead Hotel and Conference Center. The program is full of interesting topics and is already a hit with all the attendees. Looking forward to the program.


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Esophageal hiatus hernia

UPDATED: An esophageal hiatus hernia (also known as a hiatal hernia) is caused by a dilation of the esophageal hiatus and its component structures, the phrenoesophageal membranes (ligaments).

Since the intraabdominal pressure is higher than the intrathoracic pressure, abdominal contents -usually stomach and greater omentum- can herniate through the dilated esophageal hiatus into the mediastinum, the central region of the thoracic cavity. This presents as a hernia sac whose walls are formed by endothoracic fascia, phrenoesophageal membranes and parietal peritoneum. 

There are two main types of esophageal hiatus hernias. Type I is known as a "sliding hiatal hernia" and is characterized by a complete ascension of the esophagogastric junction and abdominal esophagus into the thoracic hernia sac. This is usually accompanied by a typical "hourglass image" in a radiographic assessment, and also presents with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Type I esophageal hiatus hernias are more common.

Type II esophageal hiatus hernia is known as a "paraesophageal hernia" and represent about 5 - 15% of esophageal hiatus hernias. In this case, the esophagogastric junction maintains its anatomical position inferior to the respiratory diaphragm, but the fundus and body of the stomach, along with some greater omentum herniate alongside the esophagus into the mediastinal region of the thoracic cavity. Although there can be GERD, this type of hernia usually presents with little symptomatology, and when it does, symptoms are related to ischemia or partial to complete obstruction. There are variations of type II hernia, which are classified as Type III and IV. Type IV, although rare, will include other viscera in the hernia sac, including colon, spleen, or even small intestine

Esophageal hiatus hernia in situ.The arrow points to stomach and greater omentum herniating into the thoraxEsophageal hiatus hernia, reduced. The dotted line shows the edge of the enlarged esophageal hiatus.

Images property of: CAA.Inc. 
Photographer: David M. Klein

The accompanying images above depict a Type I esophageal hiatus hernia. The superior image shows the hernia in situ where the stomach and greater omentum are still in the hernia sac. The inferior image shows the contents reduced and the abdominal esophagus being pulled into the abdominal cavity. The dotted line shows the dilated esophageal hiatus that needs to be repaired to prevent recurrence of the pathology.

The image below answers a question by Victoria Guy Ratcliffe, who asked via Facebook "What would it be if it feels like you've got a blockage right at the level of the heart? That's too high for a hiatal hernia, isn't it? " The image answers the question. It shows a dissection of the left side of the thorax. The anterior thoracic wall and the left lung have been removed. The heart is immediately superior and anterior to the esophageal hiatus, and the hernia sac of a Type I esophageal hiatus hernia is seen immediately posterior and in contact with the heart. Whether this means that you will "feel" the hernia, it is up for debate, as all these structures have visceral innervation. Most probably, a well-developed Type II esophageal hiatus hernia might interfere with swallowing at this level, causing the sensation she mentions. Thanks for the question, Tori.

Type I esophageal hiatus hernia<em>.</em>The hernia sac can be seen posterior to the heart

For additional information: "Approaches to the Diagnosis and Grading of Hiatal Hernia" Kahrilas et al Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2008 ; 22(4): 601–616.