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A Moment in History 
Pare
Ambroise Paré
 
(1510 - 1590) 

French barber-surgeon.  He studied at the Hótel-Dieu, a hospital in Paris. In 1537 he started work as an army surgeon. At the time, the general belief was that gunshot wounds were poisoned by the gunpowder, so the standard procedure was to cauterize bleeding vessels with red hot irons and then burn the open wound with boiling oil. During a battle in Turin he ran out of oil, and in despair, tried to ease the pain and suffering of the soldiers that could not be treated "appropriately" by using the only elements available to him at the moment: a paste made with rose oil, turpentine, and egg yolks.

To his surprise, the soldiers thus treated recuperated faster and with less pain. Paré decided to treat his patients more humanely, and try to reduce pain as much as possible in this pre-anesthesia world. He started using ligatures instead of cautery, and soothing salves and pastes with clean bandages to promote healing.

Paré published several books and is considered by many the first modern surgeon.

Image courtesy of the US National Library of Medicine


 

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Infundibulum

[Infundibulum] is a Latin word and it means "funnel". The plural form is [infundibula]. Variations of the word include [infundibuliform] meaning "with the shape or form of a funnel], and [infundibular] meaning "pertaining to a funnel". This word is widely used in human anatomy and embryology:

Infundibuliform fascia: Funnel-shaped portion of the transversalis fascia that is directed toward and forming the internal inguinal ring.

Hypophyseal infundibulum: An inferior extension of the hypothalamus forming a funnel-shaped stalk connected to the hypophysis or pituitary gland. (see image)

Cystic infundibulum: The funnel-shaped portion of the gallbladder

Ethmoidal infundibulum: a funnel-shaped extension of the middle meatus of the ethmoid bone, etc.

Uterine infundibulum: Refers to the funnel-shaped distal opening of the uterine tube

The term infundibulum is also found in heart anatomy. It refers to funnel-shaped extensions of the cardiac chambers. This is well-illustrated by both the cone-like right and left ventricular outflow tracts toward the semilunar valves (aortic and pulmonary). In the case of the atrioventricular valves (tricuspid and mitral) there is also described an infundibular region. In all cases, these funnel-shaped regions allow for smooth, non-turbulent blood flow towards their respective valves.

Word suggested by:J.Estrada. Original image courtesy of bartleby.com